Gas can be renewable and decarbonised, in which case it can play an essential role in delivering clean energy for all Europeans by 2030 and beyond.
Many sources can be used to produce biogas and biomethane: manure, sewage and waste (whether agricultural or municipal). Europe produces millions of tonnes of waste that can be turned into biogas, contributing to the circular economy. Also, new sources of biogas are being developed, such as algae-sourced biogas.
Biomethane is biogas that is upgraded to gas grid quality, usually for grid injection; it can also be applied to decentralised uses, such as in transport.
Hydrogen, the lightest of all gases, is the most abundant element in the universe.
It can be produced from renewable sources such as renewable electricity (via electrolysis) or from biomass (gasification). It can also be methanised, using carbon from the air or from biogas plants. Hydrogen can be used for transport.
Also known as ‘syngas’, this methane can be produced from a number of sources or processes. Renewable syngas can be produced through gasification of biomass or by methanising hydrogen that has been produced via electrolysis (power-to-gas). Not all synthetic gas is renewable, however; it can also be produced from coal gasification.